#011 | Class C (Charlie) Airspace | AIM 3-2-4
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AIM 3-2-4 as of recording
a. Definition. Generally, that airspace from the surface to 4,000 feet above the airport elevation (charted in MSL) surrounding those airports that have an operational control tower, are serviced by radar approach control, and that have a certain number of IFR operations or passenger enplanements. Although the configuration of each Class C airspace area is individually tailored, the airspace usually consists of a 5 NM radius core surface area that extends from the surface up to 4,000 feet above the airport elevation, and a 10 NM radius shelf area that extends no lower than 1,200 feet up to 4,000 feet above the airport elevation.
b. Charts. Class C airspace is charted on Sectional Charts, IFR En Route Low Altitude, and Terminal Area Charts where appropriate.
c. Operating Rules and Pilot/Equipment Requirements:
1. Pilot Certification. No specific certification required.
(a) Two-way radio; and
(b) Unless otherwise authorized by ATC, an operable radar beacon transponder with automatic altitude reporting capability and operable ADS-B Out equipment.
See Paragraph 4-1-20, Transponder and ADS-B Out Operation, subparagraph f for Mode C transponder/ADS-B requirements for operating above Class C airspace.
3. Arrival or Through Flight Entry Requirements. Two-way radio communication must be established with the ATC facility providing ATC services prior to entry and thereafter maintain those communications while in Class C airspace. Pilots of arriving aircraft should contact the Class C airspsce ATC facility on the publicized frequency and give their position, altitude, radar beacon code, destination, and request Class C service. Radio contact should be initiated far enough from the Class C airspace boundary to preclude entering Class C airspace before two-way radio communications are established.
1. If the controller responds to a radio call with, “(aircraft callsign) standby,” radio communications have been established and the pilot can enter the Class C airspace.
2. If workload or traffic conditions prevent immediate provision of Class C services, the controller will inform the pilot to remain outside the Class C airspace until conditions permit the services to be provided.
3. It is important to understand that if the controller responds to the initial radio call without using the aircraft identification, radio communications have not been established and the pilot may not enter the Class C airspace.
4. Class C airspace areas have a procedural Outer Area. Normally this area is 20 NM from the primary Class C airspace airport. Its vertical limit extends from the lower limits of radio/radar coverage up to the ceiling of the approach control’s delegated airspace, excluding the Class C airspace itself, and other airspace as appropriate. (This outer ares is not charted.)
5. Pilots approaching an airport with Class C service should be aware that if they descend below the base altitude of the 5 to 10 mile shelf during an instrument or visual approach, they may encounter non-transponder/non-ADS-B VFR aircraft.
1. [Aircraft callsign] “remain outside the Class Charlie airspace and standby.”
2. “Aircraft calling Dulles approach control, standby”
4. Departures from:
(a) A primary or satellite airport with an operating control tower. Two-way radio communications must be established and maintained with the control tower, and thereafter as instructed by ATC while operating in Class C airspace.
(b) A satellite airport without an operating control tower. Two-way radio communications must be established as soon as practicable after departing with the ATC facility having jurisdiction over the Class C airspace.
5. Aircraft Speed. Unless otherwise authorized or required by ATC, no person may operate an aircraft at or below 2,500 feet above the surface within 4 nautical miles of the primary airport of a Class C airspace area at an indicated airspeed of more than 200 knots (230 mph).
d. Air Traffic Services. When two-way radio communications and radar contact are established, all VFR aircraft are:
1. Sequenced to the primary airport.
2. Provided Class C services within the Class C airspace and the outer area.
3. Provided basic radar services beyond the outer area on a workload permitting basis. This can be terminated by the controller if workload dictates.
e. Aircraft Separation. Separation is provided within the Class C airspace and the outer area after two-way radio communications and radar contact are established. VFR aircraft are separated from IFR aircraft within the Class C airspace by any of the following:
1. Visual separation.
2. 500 feet vertical separation.
3. Target resolution.
4. Wake turbulence separation will be provided to all aircraft operating:
(a) Behind and less than 1,000 feet below super or heavy aircraft,
(b) To small aircraft operating behind and less than 500 feet below B757 aircraft, and
(c) To small aircraft following a large aircraft on final approach.
1. Separation and sequencing of VFR aircraft will be suspended in the event of a radar outage as this service is dependent on radar. The pilot will be advised that the service is not available and issued wind, runway information and the time or place to contact the tower.
2. Separation of VFR aircraft will be suspended during CENRAP operations. Traffic advisories and sequencing to the primary airport will be provided on a workload permitting basis. The pilot will be advised when CENRAP is in use.
3. Pilot participation is voluntary within the outer area and can be discontinued, within the outer area, at the pilot’s request. Class C services will be provided in the outer area unless the pilot requests termination of the service.
4. Some facilities provide Class C services only during published hours. At other times, terminal IFR radar service will be provided. It is important to note that the communications and transponder/ADS-B requirements are dependent on the class of airspace established outside of the published hours.
f. Secondary Airports
1. In some locations Class C airspace may overlie the Class D surface area of a secondary airport. In order to allow that control tower to provide service to aircraft, portions of the overlapping Class C airspace may be procedurally excluded when the secondary airport tower is in operation. Aircraft operating in these procedurally excluded areas will only be provided airport traffic control services when in communication with the secondary airport tower.
2. Aircraft proceeding inbound to a satellite airport will be terminated at a sufficient distance to allow time to change to the appropriate tower or advisory frequency. Class C services to these aircraft will be discontinued when the aircraft is instructed to contact the tower of change to advisory frequency.
3. Aircraft departing secondary controlled airports will not receive Class C services until they have been radar identified and two-way communications have been established with the Class C airspace facility.
4. This program is not to be interpreted as relieving pilots of their responsibilities to see and avoid other traffic operating in basic VFR weather conditions, to adjust their operations and flight path as necessary to preclude serious wake encounters, to maintain appropriate terrain and obstruction clearance or to remain in weather conditions equal to or better than the minimums required by 14 CFR Section 91.155. Approach control Should be advised and a revised clearance or instruction obtained when compliance with an assigned route, heading and/or altitude is likely to compromise pilot responsibility with respect to terrain and obstruction clearance, vortex exposure, and weather minimums.
g. Class C Airspace Areas by State
These states currently have designated Class C airspace areas that are depicted on sectional charts. Pilots should consult current sectional charts and NOTAMs for the latest information on services available. Pilots should be aware that some Class C airspace underlies or is adjacent to Class B airspace. (See TBL 3-2-1.)AIM 3-2-4